过去完成时(The Past Perfect Tense):过去完成时表示过去某一时间之前完成的动作或发生的情况,句子谓语形式由had+动词的过去分词构成,通常表述为“过去的过去”。在不同的句子结构中有相应体现,也可跟有一定的时间状语,如by,before等介词或连词。
1.?过去完成时的结构:
1.1 肯定句:主语+had+done+others

A. I had arrived.
我已经到了。

B. He had sent the letter.
他已经寄了这封信。

1.2 否定句:主语+had+not+done+others
A. However,Her father had not brought her birthday presents.
然而,她的父亲没有给她买生日礼物。

1.3 疑问句:had+主语+done+others
肯定回答:YES,主语+had/否定回答:NO,主语+ hadn’t
A. Had Lisa gone to costume ball ?
丽莎已经去化妆舞会了吗?

Yes,she had.
是的,她去了。
No,she hadn’t.
没有,她没去。

1.4 特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+had+主语+done+others
A. Why had The Castle become a memory of generation?
为什么电影城堡已经成为了一代的记忆?

1.5 被动语态:主语+had(not)been+done+others
A. At the end of last year,another magic design had been completed.
在去年低,另一个神奇的设计已经完成。

B. There was still doubtful that why the film had not been chased by public.
对于这部电影为什么没有被大众所追捧依然存在些疑惑。

2.?过去完成时的用法
2.1 在宾语从句中的运用:

A. To my surprise,Josh told me that he had engaged.
令我惊讶的是,乔希告诉我他已经订婚了。

B. Lizzy asked John what the professor had said in class.
在课上,利兹问约翰,教授说了什么。(这里“said”的动作在“ask”之前)

2.2 在定语从句中的运用:
A. Yesterday, ?I helped an old man who had lost her way.
昨天,我帮助了一个已经迷路的老人。(who引导的定语从句)

2.3 在以主语+had done, before/by+过去时间状语词组/从句中的运用:
A.Mr.Wanghad attended the conference and delivered a speech before he visited Yorkshire.
王先生在去约克郡之前已经出席了会议并发表演讲。(before引导的从句,一般过去时)

B. Cappuccino had become a quick seller in Starbucks,by the end of last month.
到上个月底为止,卡布奇诺已经成为了星巴克的畅销品。(by引导的时间状语)

2.4 Had done在虚拟语气中的运用(属于较特殊情况):
(1)在虚拟条件句中的运用,此时的意思要根据语境而定,可以与虚拟语气一起来归纳。主要表示与过去事实相反的愿望,即与过去事实相反。
A. If I I had taken your advice, I would have got a good grade in the exam.
如果我听取了你的建议,我将会在考试中取得好的成绩。(had taken表明过去我没有采取建议)

(2)有expect,intend,suppose(假定),hope,think等动词的过去完成时在句中出现时,表示未实现的打算,希望,愿望的意味。
A.I expect that I had been an intern in that company.?
我希望我已经是那个公司的一名实习生。(同样地,我并不是这个公司的实习生)

(3)在If only(但愿,要是) or wish出现的虚拟语气中,同样也表示与过去事实相反的愿望,想法。
A. Honestly,if only I had studied in university.
说真的,要是我在大学学习多好!(事实上我没有,与现实相反)

B. I wish I had been awarded the prize in the sports meeting.
我希望我在运动会上被授予了奖励。(事实上获奖不存在)

?2.5 在时间状语从句中的运用:
例如一些引导词 since, until, no sooner...than, hardly...when, scarcely...when 等,一般可视为 "had done" ?出现的信号,从句常用一般过去时。
A.No sooner had Whitney Houston began to sing a song than there was an instant sensation.
惠特妮·休斯顿一开始唱歌,就引起了瞬时的轰动。(注意:这里由于no sooner 否定前置,句子谓语部分倒装,所以”had”提前)

A. It was a long time since Darcy had lived in this city.
达西住在这座城市已经有很长时间了。(达西在过去的某个时间点之前就住在这座城市)