喜欢美式穿搭风格的宝宝们,一定听说过时尚品牌Abercrombie & Fitch(简称A&F)吧。

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这个1892年就创立于美国纽约的百年品牌,曾火遍全球,成为青少年文化的一部分,但后来却迅速flop,沦落成二三线品牌,无人问津。

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最近Netflix 就出了一个纪录片,讲述A&F的衰落之路——

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White Hot:?

The Rise & Fall of Abercrombie & Fitch

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曾几何时,说到 A&F这个品牌,我们的脑子里下意识就会想到肌肉男、门面夜店风和大排长龙的销售场面。当年他们家的营销真的有毒,每开一家新店,就会请一群半裸男模在店前站台,引得路人纷纷侧目:这卖的是哪门子衣服?

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但其实你知道吗,A&F一开始还是个蛮正经的服装公司,专门为特别的一群户外运动爱好者和常春藤精英提供优质的露营装备,钓鱼装备和狩猎装备,直到麦克·杰弗里斯(Mike Jeffries)成为CEO接手了公司。

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Jefferies hired Bruce Weber, a famous fashion photographer with a signature style of capturing the eroticism of the male physique.?
杰弗里斯聘请了布鲁斯·韦伯,他是一位著名的时尚摄影师,以捕捉男性体态的色情一面为自己的标志性风格。
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“He found a way to connect the heritage of Abercrombie as established in 1892, catering to elite privileged people. And combined it with this very sexy, sexual imagery,” New York Times business reporter Sapna Maheshwari said.
“他找到了一种方法,在成立于1892年的A&F公司所拥有的为精英特权人士服务的传统上,结合这种非常性感、与性相关的意象。”《纽约时报》商业记者萨普纳·马赫什瓦里说。
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从此,A&F的宣传照就变成了这个风格:

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“大表姐”詹妮弗·劳伦斯(Jennifer Lawrence)、“霉霉”泰勒·斯威夫特(Taylor Swift)等在成名之前都曾为A&F拍摄广告。

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而为了吸引年轻顾客们走进店面,麦克·杰弗里斯也是没少在店内的环境花心思下功夫。
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Shirtless male greeters were placed in front of the door, to help sell the mix of All-American and sex that Abercrombie had built its brand on (think the middle ground between Calvin Klein and Ralph Lauren).?
赤裸上身的男性迎宾员被安排在门店门口,以帮助推销A&F品牌所依赖的美国味儿和性的混合体(想想Calvin Klein和Ralph Lauren之间的中间地带就能理解)。
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Cologne was sprayed around the store, to give it a signature, musky,?masculine?scent. And the volume on the music was turned up, the pulsating nightclub beats only emphasizing its cool factor.

古龙水被喷洒在门店周围,使门店也带有具有标志性的、麝香般的男性气息。音乐的音量也被调高,动感节奏像夜店里播放的那种,只强调这个品牌的酷元素。

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很快,A&F在年轻人中爆火,甚至产生了“如果想在学校变得受欢迎,就必须穿A&F”的风潮,如果不穿A&F你就不够酷,会被当成“土鳖”遭受歧视和霸凌。
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有些人买完衣服还会保留A&F的手提袋,或者A&F的广告页贴在高中的橱柜里,以彰显自己时尚弄潮儿的身份。

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In 1999, the pop band LFO released the song “Summer Girls,” whose thirsty first verse featured the immortal couplet: “I like girls that wear Abercrombie & Fitch, I’d take her if I had one wish.”

1999年,流行乐队LFO发布了歌曲《夏日女孩(Summer Girls)》,这首歌第一节有一句经典的歌词:“我喜欢穿A&F的女孩,如果我只有一个愿望,我希望能把她带走。”

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For a kid in the 2000s,?Abercrombie & Fitch?was the coolest place to be. It was loud, it was dark, it reeked of store-brand?cologne?and the bags had shirtless men on them.?In other words, it was the perfect place to get into a screaming match with?your mother because she wouldn’t spend $50 on the over-priced graphic T-shirt that you?needed?to prove to your peers that you weren’t a poor, ugly loser.

对于2000年代的孩子来说,A&F是最酷的地方。它很吵闹,很黑暗,散发着商店品牌古龙水的气味,袋子上有不穿衣服的男人。换句话说,A&F门店是与你母亲大吵大闹的完美场所,因为她不愿意花50美元买一件价格过高的图案T恤,而你需要向你的同龄人证明你不是一个贫穷、丑陋的失败者。

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中国古话说:成也萧何,败也萧何。对于A&F来说,麦克·杰弗里斯是天才,也是恶魔。在他的时尚帝国里,中产阶级白人审美就是第一准则。
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The promotional ploy for A&F was relatively simple: hire conventionally good-looking people.?
A&F的宣传策略相对简单:雇用传统意义上的帅哥。
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Recruiters?would track down the most attractive frat guys at each college and enlist them as store employees. Overwhelmingly, these employees were white.?

招聘人员会追踪每所大学中最有吸引力的兄弟会成员,并聘用他们作为商店员工。绝大多数情况下,这些员工是白人。

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Several Black employees recounted in the documentary how they were relegated to late night shifts stocking shelves.

几位黑人员工在纪录片中讲述了他们是如何被安排到深夜轮班,在货架上摆放商品的。

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甚至在进入21世纪,品牌的多元化营销成为风潮时,傲慢的麦克·杰弗里斯依然不把其他族裔的人当回事。2002年,A&F货架上赫然出现了种族歧视中国人的T恤衫,引发了激烈抗议。

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The offensive and problematic shirts — emblazoned with racist caricatures of?buck-tooth, slant-eyes Asians alongside racist slogans like "Pizza Dojo: You Love Long Time: Eat In or Wok Out" or "Wong Brothers Laundry Service: Two Wongs Can Make It White" — enraged Asian-American student customers, who wound up protesting the brand.

令人反感和有问题的衬衫——印有龅牙、斜眼的亚洲人的种族主义漫画,以及诸如 “披萨道场:你爱了很久:吃进去或者锻炼出来”或“王氏兄弟干洗店——两个老王能把衣服洗白”——激怒了亚裔美国学生顾客,他们最终对该品牌提出抗议。

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那一场风波不足与改变A&F“白人至上”的本质,很快,A&F又惹上了“种族歧视”的官司。

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Throughout the 2000s and early 2010s, Abercrombie faced several lawsuits, including a 2004 class-action suit in which nine former employees of color accused the brand of discriminating against African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, and women by preferentially offering positions to Caucasian males.?

在整个2000年代和2010年代初,Abercrombie面临着一些诉讼,包括2004年的集体诉讼,其中9名有色人种的前雇员指控该品牌歧视非裔美国人、拉丁美洲人、亚裔美国人和妇女,优先向白种人男性提供职位。

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The brand agreed a $40 million settlement, admitting no guilt but signing a consent decree in which they pledged to change their recruiting, hiring and marketing practices.

该品牌同意用4000万美元和解,不承认有罪,但签署了一项同意令,其中他们承诺改变其招聘、雇用和营销方法。

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麦克·杰弗里斯,本人也是丑闻不断。
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他毫不掩饰自己对身材不完美的人的厌恶,更扬言“胖人不配穿我们家的衣服”,“不希望核心客户看到不如他们性感的人出现”,因为他觉得这样会让人嫌弃A&F不够“酷”。
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He would use words like “butch” to describe female clothing that wasn’t feminine enough, was obsessed with the narrow definition of an all-American aesthetic and openly admitted to the exclusionary intentions of the brand.Plus sizes weren’t even offered.

他将使用“butch(充当男性角色的女同性恋者;粗鲁的男人或男孩)”这样的词来描述不够女性化的女性服装,痴迷于美式审美的狭隘定义,并公开承认该品牌的排他性意图。甚至不提供大码。

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“He’s not the only person in fashion who believed these things. But he was the only person seemingly that would say that out loud,” Denizet-Lewis says in the film.?

“他不是时尚界唯一相信这些事情的人。但他似乎是唯一会大声说出来的人。”德尼泽-刘易斯在影片中说。

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而A&F品牌发迹的另一位核心人物,摄影师布鲁斯·韦伯(Bruce Weber)更是被众多A&F男模爆出性骚扰丑闻。

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Additionally, A&F fashion models began speaking out against photographer Bruce Weber and filed?lawsuits.?
此外,A&F的时装模特们开始公开反对摄影师布鲁斯·韦伯,并提起诉讼。
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Although he has never been convicted of a crime (one case was dismissed, two were settled with no admission of guilt), several fashion models in the documentary describe how they were coerced into sexual activities, in detail.?

虽然他从未被定罪(一个案件被驳回,两个案件在不承认犯罪的情况下和解),但纪录片中的几个时装模特详细描述了她们是如何被胁迫着与他发生性行为的。

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这些屡屡发生的丑闻事件,不仅对A&F造成了经济损失,更是严重的品牌形象坍塌和顾客信任度的下降。

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哪怕2015年,麦克·杰弗里斯引咎辞职,也难以挽救A&F的颓势。

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纪录片的最后,有人问《华盛顿邮报》的黑人时尚编辑罗宾·吉夫汉(Robin Givhan),A&F以及整个美国文化是否成功地摆脱了排斥策略。

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罗宾·吉夫汉笑了一声,说了一句:“NO

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A&F也许辉煌不再。但A&F所奉行的那套时尚价值观,却从未彻底消失。